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MODIS Land Surface Temperatures (LST)

From Land Surface Temperature (LST) maps, derivable indicators include temperature minima and maxima at annual, monthly, and decadal periods, the identification of late frost periods, unusual hot summers, growing degree days, spring temperature increase and autumnal temperature decrease (Neteler, 2005; Rizzoli et al., 2007; Carpi et al., 2008; Neteler, 2010, Roiz et al. 2011, Neteler et al. 2011; full citations  below).
While the raw data are of limited interest to landscape epidemiological applications, time series aggregation of the new sensor data leads to a new quality of ecological indicators which have not been available earlier. A special challenge is the complex terrain as it dominates the Southern Alps in Italy. It requires special attention to data processing and outlier detection.

European daily LST maps

We have reconstructed all European daily MODIS LST maps (2000-today, > 17,000 maps):

Reconstructed MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) map, 2003-07-09 at 10:30 (Terra satellite overpass)

Reconstructed daily MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) map, 250m resolution
(here: 2003-07-09 at 10:30, Terra satellite overpass) - click to enlarge

Selected data are available for download from http://gis.cri.fmach.it/eurolst/

MODIS LST on Aqua satellite base filtered
MODIS LST (7 Apr 2006, 13:30) satellite with QA map and outlier detection applied:
cirrus cloud fields remain undetected

MODIS LST on Aqua satellite twice filtered
MODIS LST (7 Apr 2006, 13:30) satellite with second outlier detection applied:
cirrus cloud fields removed

MODIS LST on Aqua satellite reconstructed
MODIS LST (7 Apr 2006, 13:30) satellite with reinterpolated with
elevation as additional variable and exposition correction (preliminary results)

MODIS LST and vector-borne disease vectors

We use our gap-filled LST maps in vector-borne disease modelling.
Click to enlarge:

 

Temperature time series from MODIS LST

We use above method to produce reconstructed time series from MODIS LST. Here some preliminary results:

MODIS LST time series at Arco (TN), Italy

Raw (blue) and reconstructed (red) MODIS LST time at Arco (TN), Italy (click to enlarge)

To better understand the quality of the reconstruction, see below a close-by meteorological station. The reconstruction above is completely independent from the meteorological data and only based on remote sensing data.

Tmin from meteorological station at Arco (TN), Italy

Tmin at 2m from meteorological station at Arco (TN), Italy (click to enlarge)

The developed method has been published in detail in 2014.

Processing the LST data

The European LST data reconstruction is very intensive since a series of input maps are used to produce the resulting reconstructed map (415 million pixels per map). We use our high performance computing GIS cluster for this and enjoy the flexibility of open source.

High Performance Computing cluster @ PGIS unit, FEM

GIS Cluster (300 nodes) of PGIS @ FEM

LST Details: QC maps

The filtering of MODIS LST maps with the QC map bitpatterns is a bit tricky. Here a list of relevant bit combinations (table inspired by this course with corrections):

Bit position 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Notes
Integer 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1  
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Good Quality, average LST <=1k
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 LST produced, other quality, recommend examination of more detailed QA
2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Not Produced, due to cloud effects
3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Not Produced, primarily due to reasons other than cloud
5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 LST produced, other quality, recommend examination of more detailed QA
17 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 LST produced, other quality, Average emissivity error <= 0.02
21 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 LST produced, other quality, Average emissivity error <= 0.02
64 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Good Quality, average LST <=2k
65 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 LST produced, other quality, Average emissivity error <= 0.01, Average LST error <= 2K
69 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 LST produced, other quality, Average emissivity error <= 0.01, Average LST error <= 2K
81 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 LST produced, other quality, Average emissivity error <= 0.02, Average LST error <= 2K
85 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 LST produced, other quality, Average emissivity error <= 0.02, Average LST error <= 2K
129 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 LST produced, other quality, Average emissivity error <= 0.01, Average LST error <= 3K
133 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 LST produced, other quality, Average emissivity error <= 0.01, Average LST error <= 3K
145 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 LST produced, other quality, Average emissivity error <= 0.02, Average LST error <= 3K
149 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 LST produced, other quality, Average emissivity error <= 0.02, Average LST error <= 3K

The color indications are recommendations for the QC pixel values (red: LST pixel to be rejected; orange: LST pixel probably acceptable; green: LST pixel ok). The decision to accept or reject orange indicated values depends on you. Find here a decimal to binary converter. The bitpattern 65 appears to be hard to decide: in some maps it depicts poor pixel quality, in many others acceptable pixel quality. Hence we suggest our MODIS LST reconstruction algorithm.

Related publications

  • Neteler, M., Metz, M., Rocchini, D., Rizzoli, A., Flacio, E., Engeler, L., Guidi, V., Lüthy, P., Tonolla, M. (2013): Is Switzerland suitable for the invasion of Aedes albopictus? PLoS ONE 8(12): e82090. [DOI | PDF] (IF: 3.730)
  • Zorer, R., Rocchini, D., Metz, M., Delucchi, L., Zottele, F., Meggio, F., Neteler, M. (2013): Daily MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data for the Analysis of the Heat Requirements of Grapevine Varieties. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 51:2128–2135. [DOI] (IF: 2.895)
  • °Neteler, M., °Roiz, D., Rocchini, D., Castellani, C. and Rizzoli, A. (2011). Terra and Aqua satellites track tiger mosquito invasion: modeling the potential distribution of Aedes albopictus in north-eastern Italy. International Journal of Health Geographics, 10:49 (in press) [ Abstract | DOI | PDF ] (IF: 2.34)
    °The authors contributed equally
  • °Roiz D., °Neteler M., Castellani C., Arnoldi D., Rizzoli A. (2011). Climatic Factors Driving Invasion of the Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) into New Areas of Trentino, Northern Italy. PLoS ONE. 6(4): e14800. [DOI | PDF] (IF: 4.411) - press reactions
    °The authors contributed equally
  • Neteler, M., 2010: Estimating daily Land Surface Temperatures in mountainous environments by reconstructed MODIS LST data. Remote Sensing 2(1), 333-351. [ DOI | Abstract | PDF ]
  • Neteler, M., 2010: Spatio-temporal reconstruction of satellite-based temperature maps and their application to the prediction of tick and mosquito disease vector distribution in Northern Italy. EDEN PhD summary. Catalogued by the EDEN EU/FP6 Steering Committee as EDEN0176
  • Carpi G., Cagnacci F., Neteler M., Rizzoli A, 2008: Tick infestation on roe deer in relation to geographic and remotely-sensed climatic variables in a tick-borne encephalitis endemic area. Epidemiology and Infection,136, pp. 1416-1424. (DOI) (ISI 2008: 2.36) [ PubMed ]
  • A. Rizzoli, M. Neteler, R. Rosà, W. Versini, A. Cristofolini, M. Bregoli, A. Buckley, and E.A. Gould, 2007: Early detection of TBEv spatial distribution and activity in the Province of Trento assessed using serological and remotely-sensed climatic data. Geospatial Health, 1(2), pp. 169-176. [ PubMed | PDF ]
  • M. Neteler, 2005: Time series processing of MODIS satellite data for landscape epidemiological applications. International Journal of Geoinformatics, 1(1), pp. 133-138 (PDF)

 

Raw data links

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